Providing a systematic and comprehensive treatment of recent developments in efficiency analysis, this readable book makes available an intuitive yet rigorous presentation of advanced nonparametric and robust methods. This flexible toolbox can be used in theories based on the neoclassical theory of production and its alternatives, including evolutionary theories. The methods are complemented by empirical analysis of three different economic fields: scientific research, mutual funds industry and the insurance sector. The research demonstrates the utility of the toolbox for a wide range of economic issues, including the analysis of economies of scale and scope, dynamics of age and agglomeration effects, trade-offs in production and service activities, and explanations of efficiency differentials. Of interest to applied economists broadly, this book will also be of interest to those focused on Operations Research and/or Management Science.