This book gives a mathematical treatment of a novel concept in material science that characterizes the properties of dynamic materialsthat is, material substances whose properties are variable in space and time. Unlike conventional composites that are often found in nature, dynamic materials are mostly the products of modern technology developed to maintain the most effective control over dynamic processes. These materials have diverse applications: tunable left-handed dielectrics, optical pumping with high-energy pulse compression, and electromagnetic stealth technology, to name a few. Of special significance is the participation of dynamic materials in almost every optimal material design in dynamics. The book discusses some general features of dynamic materials as thermodynamically open systems; it gives their adequate tensor description in the context of Maxwells theory of moving dielectrics and makes a special emphasis on the theoretical analysis of spatio-temporal material composites (such as laminates and checkerboard structures). Some unusual applications are listed along with the discussion of some typical optimization problems in space-time via dynamic materials.