This is the first book to examine the Aramaic dimension of Q since the Aramaic Dead Sea scrolls made such work more feasible. Maurice Casey gives a detailed examination of key passages in Matthew and Luke's gospels, demonstrating that they used two different Greek translations of an Aramaic source, which can be reconstructed. He overturns the conventional model of Q as a single Greek document, and shows that Jesus said everything in the original Aramaic source. Further analysis of other gospel passages shows the evangelists editing a Greek translation of an Aramaic source. On one, it can be shown that Mark utilises a different Aramaic source. A complex model of Q is thus proposed. Casey argues that Aramaic sources behind part of Q are of extremely early date, and should contribute significantly to the quest for the historical Jesus.