Winemaking depends on a complex group of microorganisms such as yeasts, bacteria, and fungi, which colonize grapes, must and wine. Understanding their wine-relevant activities is essential to improving the selection and management of novel starter cultures and consequently wine quality. In contrast to previous publications, this book consistently focuses on the biology of wine-associated microbes. An international expert board of wine researchers describes the relevant systematic, ecological, physiological and genetic aspects of wine microbiology. The diversity of wine-related species, their energy, primary and secondary metabolism are important topics that have significant impacts on aroma production and off-flavour formation. The growth management of microbial species, stimulating and inhibitory growth factors and cell-cell interactions are also discussed; chapters on modern molecular and maintenance methods including rapid and real-time identification round off the book.