This book investigates how social and cultural factors affect the education, training and career development of graduates of higher education in Japan and the Netherlands. Despite their different historical paths, both countries are now subject to the common pressure of globalization. As a result, the higher education sector in both countries is becoming more universal and available to a larger population, and the economy and society are becoming increasingly knowledge-intensive. The aim of this book is to explore how Dutch and Japanese graduates choose and develop their careers in reference to the above-mentioned challenges. It is based on a unique data set consisting of surveys held among graduates 3 and 8 years after leaving higher education.