This book contains a collection of full papers presented at the ECCOMAS Multidisciplinary Jubilee Symposium -- New Computational Challenges in Materials, Structures, and Fluids, held in Vienna, Austria, February 18-20, 2008. Computational challenges in materials, structures, and fluids, with a focus on multidisciplinarity and multi-scale analysis, are a hot topic in the engineering sciences (aerospace, civil, mechanical, etc.). Modern society in general and applied engineering sciences in particular are confronted with problems with levels of complexity never encountered before in the history of mankind. The solution of scientific problems involving fluids together with solids and structures, not to forget materials, is of paramount importance in a technical world of rapidly increasing sophistication, referred to as the Leonardo World by the eminent German philosopher Jürgen Mittelstrass. With this in mind, the ECCOMAS Managing Board decided to bring the principles of Applied Sciences into focus of the Jubilee Symposium by reconsidering the sources of relevant knowledge on processes occurring at different spatial and temporal scales. They are related to phenomena on different levels such as the nano-, micro-, meso-, and the macro levels.