This book presents a rigorous application of modern electromagnetic field theory to atomic theory. The historical view of quantum theory was developed before four major physical principles were known, or understood. These are (1) the standing energy that accompanies and encompasses electromagnetically active, electrically small volumes, (2) the power-frequency relationships in nonlinear systems, (3) the possible directivity of modal fields, and (4) electron nonlocality. The inclusion of these four effects yields a deterministic interpretation of quantum theory that is consistent with those of other sciences; the quixotic axioms of the historically accepted view of quantum theory are not needed. The new interpretation preserves the full applicability of electromagnetic field theory within atoms, showing that the status of all physical phenomena — including that within atoms — at any instant does completely specify the status an instant later.