This is the 3rd in a series of reviews, centered on a single major topic of bone replacement (Vol. 1 Bone Formation, Vol. 2 Bone Resorption) written by acknowledged authorities in the field. The biology of stem cells and cell signals, knowledge needed to make stem cell engineered, bone tissue a reality and how to prevent bone allograft infection is discussed. Furthermore, non-degradable and biodegradable scaffolds, necessary implants to attract bone cells and build suitable bone replacements follow. Other topics are motion and bone degeneration analysis and effect of mechanical factors on bone healing, implants and their role in reparative dentistry and the application of computational modeling to prosthesis design. This text will interest bioengineers, orthopedists, reconstructive surgeons, dentists, physiotherapists and all working in the fields of skeletal and dental tissue engineering and rehabilitation, as well as basic bone scientists interested in translational research.