Scottish Episcopalianism has been neglected by historians. This new work looks at the various groups of Episcopalians in the nineteenth century, showing how their beliefs and attitudes responded to the new industrial and urban society. Never before have these groups been subject to historical examination. They include Highland Gaels; North-East crofters, farmers, and fisherfolk; urban Episcopalians; Episcopalian aristocrats; Evangelical and Anglo-Catholic Episcopalians. Rowan Strong examines also the place of Episcopalians in Scottish identity in the nineteenth century, an issue which is topical today.