This book covers the basic analytical methods used in transportation economics and policy analysis. Encompassing fields of economics such as Industrial Organisation, Welfare Economics, General Equilibrium Theory and Input-Output-Analysis, the study of transport from an economic point of view serves as a test bench for applying the methodological developments of economic science to the real world. Each chapter begins with a brief theoretical introduction before evaluating case studies, using the most up-to-date statistical and econometric techniques. Discussed topics include technical and allocative efficiency and productivity related to transportation economics, the impact of information and communication technologies on transportation networks, competition and the effects of deregulation, uses of time and the effects of public investment on the economy and social welfare. The book is addressed to scientists and post-graduate students, but will also be of interest to professionals in civil and transport engineering.