Acute renal failure induced by rhabdomyolysis after strenuous, prolonged exercise such as marathon running or mountain climbing is a well-known medical phenomenon, but exercise-induced acute renal failure after short-term anaerobic exercise - for instance, short-distance track races - has been recognized only recently. This monograph provides in-depth information on exercise-induced acute renal failure after short-term anaerobic exercise, which causes severe pain in the loin and patchy renal ischemia with no sign of rhabdomyolysis. Half of the patients suffering from this condition experience renal hypouricemia, for which approximately 20% are treated with dialysis. This complete clinical reference book includes characteristics of the disease, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, and corresponding preventive measures. Important information on gene analysis and etiology is also included, creating a valuable resource for nephrologists as well as for emergency physicians and those in the field of sports medicine.