Foothold in the Heavens, the second volume in the A History of Human Space Exploration series, focuses upon the 1970s, the decade in which humanity established real, longterm foothold in the heavens with the construction and operation of the first space stations. It marked a transitional phase between the heady, race-to-the-Moon days of the Sixties and efforts to make space travel more economical, more frequent and more 'routine.' Space exploration in the Seventies, although dominated by Soviet achievement, saw the first efforts of mankind to really 'live' and work in space, producing results of direct benefit to humans on Earth. The emphasis changed from the gung-ho, 'strap-it-on-and-go' pioneers of the Sixties to the more practical exploitation of space for science, medicine, and technology. This book focuses on each mission launched between April 1971 and April 1981: from the launch of the world's first space station to the end of operations of Salyut 6, and from the expanded, lengthy exploration of the Moon on Apollo 15 to the first flight of the Shuttle.