The book tries to briefly introduce the diverse literatures in the field of fractional order signal processing which is becoming an emerging topic among an interdisciplinary community of researchers. This book is aimed at postgraduate and beginning level research scholars who would like to work in the field of Fractional Order Signal processing (FOSP). The readers should have preliminary knowledge about basic signal processing techniques. Prerequisite knowledge of fractional calculus is not essential and is exposited at relevant places in connection to the appropriate signal processing topics. Basic signal processing techniques like filtering, estimation, system identification, etc. in the light of fractional order calculus are presented along with relevant application areas. The readers can easily extend these concepts to varied disciplines like image or speech processing, pattern recognition, time series forecasting, financial data analysis and modeling, traffic modeling in communication channels, optics, biomedical signal processing, electrochemical applications and many more. Adequate references are provided in each category so that the researchers can delve deeper into each area and broaden their horizon of understanding. Available MATLAB tools to simulate FOSP theories are also introduced so that the readers can apply the theoretical concepts right-away and gain practical insight in the specific domain.