When a new extraordinary and outstanding theory is stated, it has to face criticism and skepticism, because it is beyond the usual concept. The fractional calculus though not new, was not discussed or developed for a long time, particularly for lack of its applications to real life problems. It is extraordinary because it does not deal with ordinary differential calculus. It is outstanding because it can now be applied to situations where existing theories fail to give satisfactory results. In this book not only mathematical abstractions are discussed in a lucid manner, but also several practical applications are given particularly for system identification, description and then efficient controls.