This book provides a critical engagement between distinct historical materialist approaches that have played a crucial role in shaping post-positivist International Relations theory. The volume debates the merits and shortcomings of neo-Gramscian and Open Marxist perspectives and analyses the crisis of globalization from these contesting approaches. This dialogue reveals an extensive coverage of themes linked to political theory, philosophy, historical sociology, state theory, European politics, uneven development, neoliberal globalization and resistance. Definition is given to these themes through a focus on state, capital and labour; elements so often absent from mainstream International Relations and International Political Economy. In contrast to conventional accounts, gloablization is discussed as a process of state formation and shows that neo-liberal transformation depends on the recomposition of state-capital-labour relations. The outome of this recomposition is open-ended and the volume's theoretical perspectives, in their own way, examine the underlying reasons for this uncertainty.