This handbook offers a state-of-the-art survey of quantitative science and technology research. It focuses on the development and application of indicators derived from data on scientific publications and patents. Many contributions introduce new challenging approaches in the use of these indicators. The work deals with theoretical and methodological issues, and presents applications. Scientific or technological performance and productivity of the S&T system and S&T institutions are central to the underlying concept of this handbook, which illustrates how these measures can be used at the macro-level as well as in the management of organisations. In this context, various topics such as quality control in knowledge production, internationalisation of research, collaboration, knowledge networks and knowledge flows, multi- or interdisciplinarity, knowledge specialisation and integration, and participation of women are discussed. Several contributions address the crucial question of the relevance and use of S&T indicators in a policy context.