Within the last decade there have been a number of new and important areas of emphasis in HIV care and research, particularly in the context of brain involvement. Without question, clinical and research innovations in the modern era of the HIV pandemic warrant an update on HIV and the brain. Written by a panel of leading experts, HIV and the Brain: New Challenges in the Modern Era offers a clear picture of brain impairment associated with the virus with particular focus on three emerging areas including different genetic strains of the virus throughout the world, interactions between advanced age and HIV, and the impact of HIV on the brain in the context of chronic, long-term treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HIV and the Brain: New Challenges in the Modern Era provides a comprehensive review of both basic science and clinical implications in these important areas of the disease. The text is of particular relevance to both research scientists and clinicians involved in HIV in the modern era.