This book summarizes the most recent theoretical, computational and experimental results dealing with homogeneous turbulence dynamics. A large class of flows is covered: flows governed by anisotropic production mechanisms (e.g. shear flows) and flows without production but dominated by waves (e.g. homogeneous rotating or stratified turbulence). Compressible turbulent flows are also considered. In each case, main trends are illustrated using computational and experimental results, while both linear and nonlinear theories and closures are discussed. Details about linear theories (e.g. Rapid Distortion Theory and variants) and nonlinear closures (e.g. EDQNM) are provided in dedicated chapters, following a fully unified approach. The emphasis is on homogeneous flows, including several interactions (rotation, stratification, shear, shock waves, acoustic waves, and more) which are pertinent to many application fields - from aerospace engineering to astrophysics and earth sciences.