Sepsis is an important public health problem around the world. Severe sepsis carries significant morbidity, mortality and high costs. The incidence of sepsis is increasing because of the aging population, the growing number of immunocompromised hosts, the increasing use of invasive procedures, and, to a lesser extent, antibiotic resistance among pathogens. Despite recent advances in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches the mortality rate associated with this condition remains high. Therefore, the goal of Sepsis: New Strategies is to review novel targets to be considered in patients with severe sepsis and to assess new developments for patients with sepsis originating in the respiratory tract.