The hypoxia volumes will focus on cutting edge research at the interface of hypoxia and biomedicine. Hypoxia is a constant threat to the human body and its vital organs throughout life. There are many situations in which the threat is heightened in health and disease, but mechanisms have evolved to lessen its detrimental effects. The International Hypoxia Symposia was founded to enable scientists, clinicians, physiologists, immunologists, mountaineers and other interested individuals to share their experiences of the situations associated with oxygen lack and the adaptations that allow us to survive. The mission of the International Hypoxia Symposia is to present cutting edge, sophisticated research at the very highest levels into the many effects of hypoxia on humans and animals in health and disease.