The authors provide exciting and enlightening perspectives on COX-2 and related molecular targets in the future of medicine, including historical perspectives on the discovery and development of aspirin, ibuprofen, and compounds that selectively inhibit COX-2, and the potential for development of new compounds with better efficacy and safety in the 21st century. Specific chapters illuminate the role of inflammatory mechanisms in the pathogenesis of arthritis, cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurodegenerative disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and other life-threatening and debilitating conditions. Experts in cardiovascular medicine explore the 'COX-2 controversy' regarding adverse effects of some (not all) selective COX-2 inhibitors on the cardiovasculature. Important findings are documented in cancer research showing that selective COX-2 inhibitors have powerful antineoplastic effects against major forms of cancer. A special section explores the current evidence supporting the role of COX-2 and inflammation in the development of Alzheimers disease and other neurodegenerative conditions and the potential benefit of compounds that modulate COX-2 and other inflammatory cytokines. The final section addresses nutritional modulation of inflammation and the chemopreventive value of anti-inflammatory nutraceutical agents.