This book is based on the lectures delivered at the 19th Canberra International Physics Summer School held at the Australian National University in Canberra (Australia) in January 2006.The problem of turbulence and coherent structures is of key importance in many fields of science and engineering. It is an area which is vigorously researched across a diverse range of disciplines such as theoretical physics, oceanography, atmospheric science, magnetically confined plasma, nonlinear optics, etc. Modern studies in turbulence and coherent structures are based on a variety of theoretical concepts, numerical simulation techniques and experimental methods, which cannot be reviewed effectively by a single expert.The main goal of these lecture notes is to introduce state-of-the-art turbulence research in a variety of approaches (theoretical, numerical simulations and experiments) and applications (fluids, plasmas, geophysics, nonlinear optical media) by several experts. A smooth introduction is presented to readers who are not familiar with the field, while reviewing the most recent advances in the area. This collection of lectures will provide a useful review for both postgraduate students and researchers new to the advancements in this field, as well as specialists seeking to expand their knowledge across different areas of turbulence research.