Mathematical Morphology is a speciality in Image Processing and Analysis, which considers images as geometrical objects, to be analyzed through their interactions with other geometrical objects. It relies on several branches of mathematics, such as discrete geometry, topology, lattice theory, partial differential equations, integral geometry and geometrical probability. It has produced fast and efficient algorithms for computer analysis of images, and has found applications in bio-medical imaging, materials science, geoscience, remote sensing, quality control, document processing and data analysis. This book contains the 43 papers presented at the 7th International Symposium on Mathematical Morphology, held in Paris on April 18-20, 2005. It gives a lively state of the art of current research topics in this field. It also marks a milestone, the 40 years of uninterrupted development of this ever-expanding domain.