Mathematics and Teaching uses case studies to explore complex and pervasive issues that arise in teaching. In this volume, school mathematics is the context in which to consider race, equity, political contexts and the broader social and cultural circumstances in which schooling occurs. This book does not provide immediate or definitive resolutions. Rather, its goal is to provoke and facilitate thoughtful discussion about critical issues for professional decision-making in mathematics teaching. This is the 7th volume in Reflective Teaching and the Social Conditions of Schooling: A Series for Prospective and Practicing Teachers, edited by Daniel P. Liston and Kenneth M. Zeichner. It follows the same format as previous volumes in the series. Part I includes four case studies of classroom experiences: "Race and Teacher Expectations"; "Mathematics for All?"; "Culture and School Mathematics"; and "Politics and School Mathematics." Each case is followed by a space for readers' own reactions and reflections, school stakeholders' reactions, and a summary with additional questions for further discussion. Part II presents three public arguments representing different views about the issues that arise in mathematics teaching: conservative, liberal and radical multiculturalist. Part III offers the authors' reflections on the centrality of culture in teaching mathematics, resources and exercises for further reflection, and a bibliography for further reading. Mathematics and Teaching is pertinent for all prospective and practicing teachers at any stage in their teaching careers. It is appropriate for any undergraduate and graduate course addressing mathematics teaching issues.