Moyamoya disease (MMD) was first reported as a new entity among vascular disorders in 1957. Named for the abnormal vascular networks found around the occluded distal internal carotid artery, it is the most common pediatric cerebrovascular disease in East Asia. In recent years large amounts of data on MMD have been collected and important investigations have been carried out in Japan and Korea, even as the pathophysiology of the disease remains to be discovered. This monograph covers a diversity of topics and presents a systematic compilation of the data and current status of MMD in clinical practice and basic research. With contributions by more than 70 authors, the book includes sections on genetics, computational analysis of hemodynamic shear stress, new imaging techniques, and endovascular treatment of MMD, along with practical applications and future directions for gene and stem cell therapies. For neurosurgeons as well as neurologists and pediatricians, this volume will help lead to more efficient and informed management of MMD.