Until the 1980s it was denied that fetuses and neonates feel pain. With the advent of a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology and new diagnostic tools, the last 30 years have seen great developments in this field, but the treatment of neonatal and fetal pain is still a controversial issue and a central topic, not only in specialties directly concerned with it, but also in bioethics. Some important issues are still under investigation. When does pain perception appear? Is it ethical to cure fetal pain? Does fetal pain have consequences for the developing brain? Can a fetus suffer? This volume aims to give an overview of current knowledge in the field. An international team of specialists has been assembled to evaluate neonatal and fetal pain from various points of view neurological, pediatric, gynecological, anesthesiological and with regard to possible consequences of pain (including psychological) for the brain. This book will be an invaluable resource for neonatologists, pediatricians, anesthesiologists, gynecologists, and other professionals involved in this field, and for postgraduate students in all disciplines.