This book, a result of the author's teaching and research experience in various universities and institutes over the past ten years, can be used as a textbook for an optimization course for graduates and senior undergraduates. It systematically describes optimization theory and several powerful methods, including recent results. For most methods, the authors discuss an ideas motivation, study the derivation, establish the global and local convergence, describe algorithmic steps, and discuss the numerical performance. The book deals with both theory and algorithms of optimization concurrently. It also contains an extensive bibliography. Finally, apart from its use for teaching, Optimization Theory and Methods will be very beneficial as a research reference.