The successful prevention of childhood diseases like diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis has made a major contribution to the improvement of public health, and vaccines and a variety of drugs are amongst the most fruitful applications of 20th-century research. Today pediatric infectious disease research is closely interconnected with other disciplines. Understanding the biology of the causative agents and the pathogenesis of disease is an essential step in achieving control and elimination of the diseases. Starting with historical, epidemiological and sociocultural issues, the volume presents clinical as well as molecular biological aspects of pediatric infectious diseases. New insights into the pathogenesis of infection are presented and an update on diagnostics, prevention and treatment of pediatric viral, fungal and bacterial diseases provided. The role of emerging new pathogens is also highlighted. The book aims at an interdisciplinary audience of clinicians and non-clinicians: pediatricians, infectious disease researchers, virologists, microbiologists, public health politicians and university libraries.