Thin films science and technology plays an important role in the high-tech industries. Thin film technology has been developed primarily for the need of the integrated circuit industry. The demand for development of smaller and smaller devices with higher speed especially in new generation of integrated circuits requires advanced materials and new processing techniques suitable for future giga scale integration (GSI) technology. In this regard, physics and technology of thin films can play an important role to acheive this goal. The production of thin films for device purposes has been developed over the past 40 years. Thin films as a two dimensional system are of great importance to many real-world problems. Their material costs are very small as compared to the corresponding bulk material and they perform the same function when it comes to surface processes. Thus, knowledge and determination of the nature, functions and new properties of thin films can be used for the development of new technologies for future applications.Thin film technology is based on three foundations: fabrication, characterization and applications. Some of the important applications of thin films are microelectronics, communication, optical electronics, catalysis, coating of all kinds, and energy generation and conservation strategies.This book emphasizes the importance of thin films and their properties for the new technologies. It presents basic principles, processes techniques and applications of thin films. As thin films physics and technology is a multidisciplinary field, the book will be useful to a wide varity of readers (especially young researcher) in physics, electronic engineering, material science and metallurgy.