This book opens with a description of fundamental aspects of protein adsorption to surfaces, a phenomenon that plays a key role in biotechnological applications, especially at solid-liquid interfaces. Presented here are methods for studying adsorption kinetics and conformational changes such as optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS). Also described are sensitive bench techniques for measuring the orientation and structure of proteins at solid-liquid interfaces, including total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE), dual polarisation interferometry (DPI) and time of flight - secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOFSIMS). A model study of fibronectin at polymer surfaces is included, as are studies using microporous membranes and textiles with immobilized enzymes for large-scale applications. Biocompatibility, anti-fouling properties and surface modification to modulate the adsorption and activity of biomolecules are among the other topics addressed in this invaluable book.