Blending theoretical results with practical applications, this book provides an introduction to random matrix theory and shows how it can be used to tackle a variety of problems in wireless communications. The Stieltjes transform method, free probability theory, combinatoric approaches, deterministic equivalents and spectral analysis methods for statistical inference are all covered from a unique engineering perspective. Detailed mathematical derivations are presented throughout, with thorough explanation of the key results and all fundamental lemmas required for the reader to derive similar calculus on their own. These core theoretical concepts are then applied to a wide range of real-world problems in signal processing and wireless communications, including performance analysis of CDMA, MIMO and multi-cell networks, as well as signal detection and estimation in cognitive radio networks. The rigorous yet intuitive style helps demonstrate to students and researchers alike how to choose the correct approach for obtaining mathematically accurate results.