How is information represented in the nervous system? How is that information manipulated and processed? These are some of the more important and challenging questions for neuroscientists and psychologists today. Understanding brain functions, especially the neural mechanisms of higher cognitive processes such as thinking, reasoning, judging, and decision making, are the subjects covered by the research in the chapters of this book. They describe recent progress in four major research areas: visual functions, motor functions, memory functions, and prefrontal functions. Readers will obtain an excellent idea of how the nervous system internally represents the outer world, how the nervous system constructs images or schemas to perceive the outer world or react to the environment, and how the nervous system processes information using internal representations - topics that are at the forefront of brain science today.