This book investigates the adaptation of cognitive processes to limited resources. The central topics of this book are heuristics considered as results of the adaptation to resource limitations, through natural evolution in the case of humans, or through artificial construction in the case of computational systems; the construction and analysis of resource control in cognitive processes; and an analysis of resource-adaptivity within the paradigm of concurrent computation. The editors integrated the results of a collaborative 5-year research project that involved over 50 scientists. After a motivation of resource-adaptive cognitive processes and self-adaptive systems, the editors organized 22 chapters into 5 sections dealing with resource-bounded and resource-adaptive cognitive processes in human information processing and human-machine systems, and the related technology transfer issues. The book will benefit researchers in the fields of artificial intelligence, computer science, computational linguistics and psychology.