The vision of a world in which privacy persists and security is ensured but the full potential of the technology is nevertheless tapped guides this work. It is argued that security and privacy can be ensured using technical safeguards if the whole RFID system is designed properly. The challenge is immense since many constraints exist for providing security and privacy in RFID systems: technically and economically but also ethically and socially. Not only security and privacy needs to be provided but the solutions also need to be inexpensive, practical, reliable, scalable, flexible, inter-organizational, and lasting. After analyzing the problem area in detail, this work introduces a number of new concepts and protocols that provide security and ensure privacy in RFID systems by technical means. The classic RFID model is extended and considerations in new directions are taken. This leads to innovative solutions with advantageous characteristics. Finally, a comprehensive framework including required protocols for operation is proposed. It can be used within a global scope, supports inter-organizational cooperation and data sharing, and adheres to all the architectural guidelines derived in this work. Security and privacy is provided by technical means in an economic manner. Altogether, the goal of building scalable and efficient RFID systems on a global, inter-organizational scale without neglecting security and privacy has been achieved well.