This book provides the first-ever systematic introduction to the theory of Riemannian submersions, which was initiated by Barrett O'Neill and Alfred Gray less than four decades ago. The authors focus their attention on classification theorems when the total space and the fibres have nice geometric properties. Particular emphasis is placed on the interrelation with almost Hermitian, almost contact and quaternionic geometry. Examples clarifying and motivating the theory are included in every chapter. Recent results on semi-Riemannian submersions are also explained. Finally, the authors point out the close connection of the subject with some areas of physics.