This book provides a comprehensive look at the Schwarz-Christoffel transformation, including its history and foundations, practical computation, common and less common variations, and many applications in fields such as electromagnetism, fluid flow, design and inverse problems, and the solution of linear systems of equations. It is an accessible resource for engineers, scientists, and applied mathematicians who seek more experience with theoretical or computational conformal mapping techniques. The most important theoretical results are stated and proved, but the emphasis throughout remains on concrete understanding and implementation, as evidenced by the 76 figures based on quantitatively correct illustrative examples. There are over 150 classical and modern reference works cited for readers needing more details. There is also a brief appendix illustrating the use of the Schwarz-Christoffel Toolbox for MATLAB, the state-of-the-art package for computation of these maps.