This volume contains the proceedings of the OTAMP 2008 (Operator Theory, Analysis and Mathematical Physics) conference held at the Mathematical Research and Conference Center in Bedlewo near Poznan. It is composed of original research articles describing important results presented at the conference, some with extended review sections, as well as presentations by young researchers. Special sessions were devoted to random and quasi-periodic differential operators, orthogonal polynomials, Jacobi and CMV matrices, and quantum graphs. This volume also reflects new trends in spectral theory, where much emphasis is given to operators with magnetic fields and non-self-adjoint problems. The book is geared towards scientists from advanced undergraduate students to researchers interested in the recent development on the borderline between operator theory and mathematical physics, especially spectral theory for Schrödinger operators and Jacobi matrices.