Automation is undergoing a major transformation in scope and dimension and plays an increasingly important role in the global economy and in our daily lives. Engineers combine automated devices with mathematical and organizational tools to create complex systems for a rapidly expanding range of applications and human activities. This handbook incorporates these new developments and presents a widespread and well-structured conglomeration of new emerging application areas of automation. Besides manufacturing as a primary application of automation, the handbook contains new application areas such as medical systems and health, transportation, security and maintenance, service, construction and retail as well as production or logistics. This Springer Handbook is not only an ideal resource for automation experts but also for people new to this expanding field such as engineers, medical doctors, computer scientists, designers. It is edited by an internationally renowned and experienced expert.