This book treats stability problems of equilibrium states of elastic rods. Euler energy and dynamical methods of stability analysis are introduced and stability criteria for each method is developed. Stability analysis is accompanied by a number of classical conservative and non-conservative, two- and three-dimensional problems. Some problems are treated by all three methods. Many generalized versions of known problems are presented (heavy vertical rod, rotating rod, Greenhill's problem, Beck's column, Pflüger's rod, strongest column, etc.). The generalizations consist in using either a generalized form of constitutive equations or a more general form of loading, or both. Special attention is paid to the influence of shear stresses and axis compressibility on the value of the critical load. Variational methods are applied to obtain estimates of the critical load and maximal deflection in the post-critical state, in a selected number of examples.