One of the motivating questions in materials research today is, how can elements be combined to produce a solid with specified properties? This book is intended to acquaint the reader with established principles of crystallography and cohesive forces that are needed to address the fundamental relationship between the composition, structure and bonding. Starting with an introduction to periodic trends, the book discusses crystal structures and the various primary and secondary bonding types, and finishes by describing a number of models for predicting phase stability and structure. Containing a large number of worked examples, exercises, and detailed descriptions of numerous crystal structures, this book is primarily intended as an advanced undergraduate or graduate level textbook for students of materials science. It will also be useful to scientists and engineers who work with solid materials.