In the last century developments in mathematics, philosophy, physics, computer science, economics and linguistics have proven important for the development of logic. There has been an influx of new ideas, concerns, and logical systems reflecting a great variety of reasoning tasks in the sciences. This volume reflects the multi-dimensional nature of the interplay between logic and science. It presents contributions from the world's leading scholars under the following headings: - Proof, Knowledge and Computation - Truth Values beyond Bivalence - Category-Theoretic Structures - Independence, Evaluation Games, and Imperfect Information - Dialogue and Pragmatics. The contents exemplify the liveliness of modern perspectives on the philosophy of logic and mathematics and demonstrate the growth of the discipline. It describes new trends, possible developments for research and new issues not normally raised in the standard agenda of the philosophy of logic and mathematics. It transforms rigid classical partitions into a more open field for improvisation.