The carotid body arterial chemoreceptors constitute unique sensory receptors capable of monitoring in an instant to instant fashion the levels of arterial blood oxygen and carbon dioxide, capturing any deviations from normality and initiating bodily homeostatic reflexes aimed to correct the detected deviations. Chemoreceptor cells of the carotid body constitute ideal models to study the entire processes of O2-sensing as well as CO2-sensing The Arterial Chemoreceptors represents an updated review of the physiology of the carotid body chemoreceptors. More importantly, the book presents the trends in the field as it contains results in the topics that are at the frontiers of future developments in O2-sensing in chemoreceptor cells. Additionally, this volume contains data from studies carried out in other O2-sensing tissues including pulmonary vasculature and erythropoietin producing cells. This book should be considered as a prime source of information and as a guideline for every researcher in the field of arterial chemoreception in the years to come. It is also an important source of information for researchers in the fields of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and pulmonary hypertension as well as for researchers in the field of erythropoietin.