The transcription factor NF-kB has long been known to play a central role in the immune system by regulating the expression of key genes. Moreover, activation of this transcription factor helps a wide variety of cell types survive damage induced by pro-apoptotic stimuli. Owing to its critical role in the regulation of pro-inflammatory genes, NF-kB has long been regarded as a promising target for the discovery of anti-inflammatory drugs. More recently, NF-kB has emerged as a major culprit in a variety of human cancers mainly due to its ability to protect transformed cells from apoptosis. This finding should not have come as a surprise since there exists a link between inflammation and cancer which was already suggested by Galen and later demonstrated by Virchow. This link, of crucial importance for the design of novel strategies for cancer treatment, is the topic of this book.