An occupation is, most simply put, any activity we participate in that engages (occupies) our attention, interests, and/or expectations, at any point throughout the life course. This book offers an emerging and innovative perspective on occupation, based in the work of American philosopher John Dewey and other pragmatists, that challenges accepted ideas. Each chapter presents a lively and multifaceted dialogue on transactional perspectives on occupation. Scholars from Europe, North America, and Australasia have written a diverse set of arguments and case studies about occupation, covering theoretical, methodological and applied issues relevant to the topic. In addition, contributors make connections with significant authors from various disciplines that make clearer the roles of occupation and occupational science across many cultures and contexts. The transactional perspectives articulated in this book both implicitly and explicitly suggest that occupations are forms of activity that create and re-create a multitude of our relationships with the world. Often taken for granted by some academic disciplines, occupation is a core element of human life. This book is a provocative and critical analysis of the focal concept for occupational therapy and science.