Who is really making EU laws and regulations? Formally, and according to most popular accounts, responsibility lies with European politicians who are directly elected (MEPs) or indirectly accountable to elected bodies at the European or national level (council). In practice, however, as this book shows, things can be very different. The real makers of European legislation and rules are frequently unelected and far from the public gaze. This book describes and evaluates the role of many such unseen lawmakers, including commission officials, experts from national governments and companies, lobbyists, secretaries of the council and others.